Biochemians unite!



Extra credit assignment- Metabolomics

BIOL 2360

Travis Peayarlal


Metabolomics is under the field of the “omics”. It involves the characterization of very small molecules known as metabolites found in biological samples. In epidemiology or disease mechanisms, it is considered a new and emerging form of technology which have gained a lot of attention. This outburst of advancement in disease diagnostics and analysis will encourage more growth in future projects under the field of metabolomics. A prime example where it will be useful is for cancer where there is urgent need for precise and cost efficient diagnostic tools and a dire urge to produce working therapies along with valid biomarkers to help with predicting accurate response to the therapy.

It is interesting to note that metabolomics have been known for decades but never drew scientist’s attention as compared to the omics such as genomics, transcriptiomics and proteomics. In the past metabolomics have only been used to help decipher inborn genetic errors of metabolism and congenital disorders. But now with the advancement of technology, new instruments have been developed which sparked the insurgence of attention metabolomics is now receiving. These include: nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gas chromatography, liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (MS), along with software such as informatics and chemometrics.


Diagram showing the metabolomic process

Diagram showing the metabolomic process

As compared to all the other omics metabolomics is the most promising due to:

  • Since the physical changes (phenotype) are cases of adaptations in metabolome (organism), distresses are increased when translated to the metabolome which makes metabolomics a higly sensitive method as compared to genomics and tanscriptomics.
  • It is a lot more cost effective than other omics
  • It is easier when comparing information over certain conditions and biochemical derangements.
  • It is easier when transferring data analysis from organism to organism.

For diseases, metabolomics has several advantages than other omics for example in diabetes research where it:

  1. It can use a lot less smaller molecule metabolites and,
  2. Provide a method for measuring integrated phenotype’s changes in the genome as well as for transcriptome and proteome.

For a particular experiment where the aim was to create ways of transplanting pancreatic islet cells, NMR mass isotopomer have been used to research glucose metabolism in the cells that secretes insulin and also mitochondrial pathways that are capable of controlling glucose responsiveness. The cells are cultured [U-13C] glucose (D.Nagrath et al. 2011). Then the NMR-based isotopomer analyses the secretion of glutamate. This gives the opportunity of determining glucose to pyruvate along with its entry into the Krebs cycle via enzymatic conversions to Pyruvate dehydrogenase then into acetyl CoA. The isotopomer’s analysis encourages and results in the relative rates of each flux due to observing the components secreted during each cycle.

There are many more uses of metabolomics and it seems to have a lot of development in the future mainly in the areas of advanced metabolite detection mechanisms and data analysis which would provide impetus for clinical medicine in a wide scale.



Supplements- Nature’s way Ginkgold


                                                 Travis Peayarlal     813117868    Biochemistry IIA    BIOL2360 Extra Credit : Supplements




Nature’s way Ginkgold is a dietary supplement which claims to enhance all areas of the brain. Nature’s way stresses the fact that the Standardized Ginkgo Biloba (Ginkgold) extract has unique properties (20 active and coactive constituents). These enrich and benefit us by:

  • Supporting memory, concentration and mental activity of the brain.
  • Antioxidant protection against free radicals- oxidative stress affects ones brain health and blood vessel tissues.
  • Helps maintain blood vessel tone
  • Supports healthy circulation to the brain and the body’s extremities.

Basically it provides Mental Sharpness.


Recommendation: Take 1 tablet twice daily with water at meal times. For intensive use: Take 2 tablets twice daily with water at mealtimes.

Supplement Facts
Serving Size 1 Tablet
Servings Per Container 50
Amount Per Serving % Daily Value
Ginkgold Ginkgo biloba extrat (leaf) standardized to 24% Ginkgo flavone glycosides and 6% terpene lactones 60mg **

** Daily Value not established



Ginkgo biloba is a species of tree that is known for being the world’s oldest, living up to 1000 years. They can be found in south and east USA, south France, Korea and China. The leaves of this ancient tree is used for modern herbal medicines and supplementary. The reason the Ginkgo is famous for creating the effect of enhanced cognitive functions is because of the active ingredients. It can be split into two groups of active constituents which includes:

  • The ginkgo flavone glycosides and,
  • Terpene lactones.

The ginkgo flavone glycosides makes up 24% of the extract and is the main reason for the antioxidant properties that ginkgo has and also mild inhibition of platelet sticking together. The antioxidant action also affects the brain and retina of the eye. This is useful for those with diabetic retinopathy (diabetic eye disease that leads to blindness due to blood vessels in the eye changing) and macular degeneration (loss of vision).

The terpene lactones in ginkgo extracts are ginkgolides and bilobalide. This makes up around 6% of the extract. These two are important increasing blood circulation to the brain and also other areas of the body. It also provides a protection for nerve cells. Blood circulation is very effective by ginkgo as it regulates the elasticity and tone of the blood vessels.


Biochemistry video on Ketone bodies!!!- Invasion of the Ketone Body Snatchers


Word search!!!

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Worldle for Cell and Dev

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Here we see a minion busy taking notes during his biochemistry labs

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One of my Cross Stitching art piece !

One of my Cross Stitching art piece !



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Built it a month ago!!

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From my Favorite anime One Piece!!

From my Favorite anime One Piece!!

I am also PC gamer as well.  I currently play DOTA 2, but my favourite is the Assassin’s Creed series since it involves a lot of historical places, famous people and events.

All the current Assassins in the series!!

All the current Assassins in the series!!


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Our expectations for this course were not very pronounced, since we were not really sure what we were getting in to… After one lecture though, one thing was certain…. the need to walk with a sweater! But also, more importantly, we covered topics that we have done for CAPE. This made us a little less intimidated towards the course. Our greatest hope is that this course will be a FUN experience. But I guess only time will tell how the course will turn out… so fingers crossed!


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